Learning Point

LEARNING POINT

Learning is a continuous process; we shall be sharing with you learning points to consider on a monthly basis. Pearl Vocational Training College encourages her students to utilize this link and learn, it is better to learn something new every day, knowledge empowers. Enjoy.

Government

 A group of people that governs a community or unit. It sets and administers public policy and exercises executive, political and sovereign power through customs, institutions, and laws within a state. A government can be classified into many types–democracy, republic, monarchy, aristocracy, and dictatorship are just a few. In our debates at Pearl, we have encouraged students to discuss the various types of governments we have in Uganda.

Discrimination
Bias or prejudice resulting in denial of opportunity, or unfair treatment regarding selection, promotion, or transfer. Discrimination is practiced commonly on the grounds of age, disability, ethnicity, origin, political belief, race, religion, sex, etc. factors which are irrelevant to a person’s competence or suitability. It can also be defined as unequal treatment provided to one or more parties on the basis of a mutual accord or some other logical or illogical reason. Forexample, people generally discriminate others due to their color, age, sex, sex orientation, belief or non belief. At Pearl, we are against all forms of discrimination.

An Advocate
Person who supports a cause and exercises his right to be heard, or represents a party before a court or tribunal to defend it or plead on behalf of it. Legally speaking, an Advocate of Court is also called an Attorney in United States, South Asia, the United Kingdom, and most countries which follow English Common Law. At Pearl, we encourage our students to be advocates of peace, of social support and love for the empowerment of the community.
Government
A group of people that governs a community or unit. It sets and administers public policy and exercises executive, political and sovereign power through customs, institutions, and laws within a state. A government can be classified into many types–democracy, republic, monarchy, aristocracy, and dictatorship are just a few. In our debates at Pearl, we have encouraged students to discuss the various types of governments we have in Uganda.

AMBIGUOUS  

Unclear or uncertain. An ambiguous phrase is one that is not easy to understand, and often could be interpreted different ways. Something ambiguous can occasionally be deceptive, either intentionally or unintentionally, because the interpreter isn’t able to figure out the actual meaning. The terms and conditions of a website, or the warranty of aproduct, if written with ambiguity, could confuse the reader. Freethinkers are found of talking about the ambiguities created by religions.

EMPIRICAL

Knowledge derived from investigation, observation, experimentation, or experience, as opposed to theoretical Knowledge based on logical or mathematical assumptions. Humanists and freethinkers put emphasis on empirical evidence to have a basis for their arguments and submissions. Generally speaking, scientists value empirical knowledge to reach conclusions.

A CORPORATION

Firm that meets certain legal requirements to be recognized as having a legal existence, as an entity separate and distinct from its owners. Corporations are owned by their stockholders (shareholders) who share in profits and losses generated through the firm’s operations, and have three distinct characteristics (1) Legal existence: a firm can (like a person) buy, sell, own, enter into a contract, and sue other persons and firms, and be sued by them. It can do good and be rewarded, and can commit offence and be punished. (2) Limited liability: a firm and its owners are limited in their liability to the creditors and other obligorsonly up to the resources of the firm, unless the owners give personal-guaranties. (3) Continuity of existence: a firm can live beyond the life spans and capacity of its owners, because its ownership can be transferred through a sale or gift of shares.

Stereotype

General: (1) Erroneous, relatively fixed, simplistic, and mostly negative generalization (based commonly on bigotry, ignorance, and prejudice) held to be true about certain individuals or groups. (2) Lacking individuality or originality, stale.

USAGE EXAMPLE

At Pearl Vocational Training College, we do not accept marginalizing and discriminating people due to the so many stereotype based on their race, gender, color or sex orientation.

Culture

Broadly, social heritage of a group (organized community or society). It is a pattern of responses discovered, developed, or invented during the group’s history of handling problems which arise from interactions among its members, and between them and their environment. These responses are considered the correct way to perceive, feel, think, and act, and are passed on to the new members.

USAGE EXAMPLE

At Pearl Vocational Training College we are aware of the fact that our students, teachers and volunteers all come from different ethnic backgrounds, our goal is to build a cooperative and harmonious work culture so that everyone can feel comfortable here.

Paradigm

Intellectual perception or view, accepted by an individual or a society as a clear example, model, or pattern of how things work in the world. This term was used first by the US science fiction historian Thomas Kuhn (1922-96) in his 1962 book ‘The structure Of Scientific Revolution’ to refer to theoretical frameworks within which all scientific thinking and practices operate.

USAGE EXAMPLE

The paradigm for declaring war on another country shifted from one of offense which was to gain territory to one of prevention of another war.

Proxy

Written authorization from an absent member (or a shareholder, called the ‘principal’) that confers a limited power of attorney on another person, member, or management of the firm (called ‘agent’ or ‘proxy’) to vote on behalf of, and in accordance with the directions of, the principal.
Dependent variable

A factor or phenomenon that is changed by the effect of an associated factor or phenomenon called the independent variable.For example, consumption is a dependent variable because it is caused and influenced by another variable: income. In a mathematical equation or model, the dependent variable is the variable whose value is to be determined by that equation or model.

USAGE EXAMPLE

If you are trying to understand how the number of hours worked per day affects overall worker productivity, worker productivity is the “dependent variable” because it is controlled by work hours, not the other way around.

Trust

  1. Legal Entity created by a party (the trustor) through which a second party (the trustee) holds the right to manage the trustor’s assets or property for the benefit of a third party (the beneficiary). The four main types of trusts are: (1) Living: trust created by the trustor while he or she is alive. (2) Testamentary: trust established through a will and which comes into effect .

USAGE EXAMPLE

If you are wondering how she is able to travel so much and work so little at such a young age, it is

because her parents set up a trust that provides for most of her living expenses.

Resolution

  1. Formal authorization or expression of an action, decision, intention, opinion, transaction, etc.
    2. Proposition put before a meeting of stockholders (shareholders) or the directors of a firm for discussion, approval or adoption. Resolutions are of four common types: (1) Elective (see elective resolution), (2) Extraordinary (see extraordinary resolution), (3) ordinary (see ordinary .

USAGE EXAMPLE

When the company’s profitability decreased steadily over a five year period, the shareholders passed a resolution to decrease executive salaries as a way to reduce expenses.

Gross income

The amount by which sales revenue exceeds production costs (cost of sales).Though operating income gives a more accurate picture of a company’s profitability, gross income provides a top-line view of a company’s production or (in case of a merchant) sales related cost structure. It is a measure of how well (or badly) a company is utilizing its capital, capacity, and other resources.

Precedent

Common-law doctrine under which past decisions of a court are cited as an authority to decide a substantially similar current case. Under the English legal maxim of stare decisis (Latin for, to stand by things decided) the previous decisions (precedents) of an appellate court are binding on the same and lower courts within its jurisdiction.

USAGE EXAMPLE

Unfortunately, the company’s first chief executive set a bad precedent for his successors by embezzling funds, abusing employees, and crashing his company car.

RATIONALE

Explanation of the logical reasons or principles employed in consciously arriving at a decision or estimate. Rationales usually document (1) why a particular choice was made, (2) how the basis of its selection was developed, (3) why and how the particular information or assumptions were relied on, and (4) why the conclusion is deemed credible or realistic.
HEURISTICS

Trial-and-error procedure for solving problems (or reaching an unclear goal) through incremental exploration, and by employing a known criteria to unknown factors. For example, trying to climb a fog shrouded hill by making every step an upward-step. In journalism, a well known heuristic is asking Who? What? When? Where? Why? in investigating a news story. A heuristic employs independent …

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

A company’s sense of responsibility towards the community and environment (both ecological and social) in which it operates. Companies express this citizenship (1) through their waste and pollution reduction processes, (2) by contributing educational and social programs, and (3) by earning adequate returns on the employed resources. Pearl Vocational Training College is one such a company highly considers corporate social responsibility as our primary focus, as the best approach for a company to empower local communities through giving back much of the time.

LEARNING POINT

CRITICAL THINKING

Objective examination of assumptions (adopted rules of thumb) underlying current beliefs to assess their correctness and legitimacy, and thus to validate or invalidate the beliefs. At PEARL, we encourage our students to use critical thinking every day to help make right decisions for what they want to do and be who they want to become in the future that they  want to be part of.

OPTION It is a contract to keep an offer open for a fixed period during which the offeror cannot withdraw the offer. It is also a formal contract between a seller (the optioner) and a buyer (the optionee) the right (but not the obligation) to buy-and-sell (or to buy-or-sell) a specific property or a fixed-quantity of a commodity, currency, or security, at a fixed price (called exercise price) on or up to a fixed date (called expiration date). Optionee pays down only a fraction (called premium or option money) of the full value of the contract, thus obtaining an investment leverage. An option to buy (called call option) is purchased when prices are expected to rise, an option to sell (called put option) when prices are expected to fall, and an option to buy-or-sell (called double option) when prices may go either way.

PETER PRINCIPLE

Observation that in an hierarchy people tend to rise to “their level of incompetence.” Thus, as people are promoted, they become progressively less-effective because good performance in one job does not guaranty similar performance in another. Named after the Canadian researcher Dr. Laurence J. Peter (1910-90) who popularized this observation in his 1969 book ‘The Peter Principle

MEAN

Simple or arithmetic average of a range of values or quantities, computed by dividing the total of all values by the number of values. For example, the mean of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 is (15 ÷ 5) = 3. It is the most common and best general purpose measure of the mid-point (around which all other values cluster) of a set of values, but is prone to distortion by the presence of extreme values and may …

SOCIALISM

An economic system in which goods and services are provided through a central system of cooperative and/or government ownership rather than through competition and a free market system.

COMMUNISM

Economic and social system in which all (or nearly all) property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society and not by individual citizens. Based on the 1848 publication ‘Communist Manifesto’ by two German political philosophers, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his close associate Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), it envisaged common ownership of all land and capital and withering away of the coercive power of the state. In such a society, social relations were to be regulated on the fairest of all principles: from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs. Differences between manual and intellectual labor and between rural and urban life were to disappear, opening up the way for unlimited development of human potential. In view of the above, there has never been a truly communist state although the Soviet Union of the past and China, Cuba, and North Korea of today stake their claims.

HYPOTHESIS

A supposition or explanation (theory) that is provisionally accepted in order to interpret certain events or phenomena, and to provide guidance for further investigation. A hypothesis may be proven correct or wrong, and must be capable of refutation. If it remains unrefuted by facts, it is said to be verified or corroborated. In terms of .Statistics, it is an assumption about certain characteristics of a population. If it specifies values for every parameter of a population, it is called a simple hypothesis; if not, a composite hypothesis. If it attempts to nullify the difference between two sample means (by suggesting that the difference is of no statistical significance), it is called a null hypothesis.

TEXTILE DESIGN

Textile design is the art decoration of fabric and is broken down into two parts; textile surface decor, and weaving which goes more into the creation of a design within the yarn (fibers) of cloth. However in today’s textile, surface decoration is the area to be addressed so that you can better understand that it entails so much more than screen prints and can be applied to everyday living.

Textiles are a very common aspect to come by but are relatively taken for granted let alone misunderstood by the everyday person. Textile design is the art of creation and repetition of a design called a motif to cover a large area for decorative purpose, or as means of symbolism of a culture.

It is not limited to the printing of fabrics for carpets, towels, or curtains; there is no much more that even transcends the field of artistic history.

Right from early civilization of the Egyptians, textile design was an art form used to document their everyday activities, keep count of their settlements and decorate the courts of royalty. In the Arabian Peninsula it comprised of the Islamic inspired mosaics, where they decorated kook covers, tapestries, walls and even floors, leaving no area plain and lacking colour. It is from such early civilizations that it spread in spread to greater heights and this has pushed our boundaries to create more than we have not yet seen but which is humanly possible.

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